In China, like most of the developing world, littering is rampant. Here it's almost a national pastime. However, thousands of women are employed as street cleaners. They pedal and push their cleaning carts around, dressed in orange coveralls, gloved and masked sweeping and scooping the crap that the mindless masses toss around. They have excellent job security.
As a kid, I remember the TV campaigns to stop littering, which continue to this day, and when you return to the US from a visit to a developing country you realize just how effective they are. Most Americans wouldn't think of throwing trash on the ground, let alone in a lake, or river. We've been indoctrinated.
I think that it would benefit this country to have such a public education push. It would cost very little, and they could appeal to The People's patriotism to get them to stop. If you could get Beijing to stop spitting for the Olympics, you could get most people to use a trash can.